2017 Sept 16
2017 May 24
The first image, on September 6, 2017, shows the river Koshi running through Bihar, the Ganges and several other rivers upstream of it when flood waters of the monsoon covered immense swaths of the landscape. The second image shows the same area on May 24, 2017, before monsoon rains began. The flooding was catastgrophic: it killed almost 300 people. And displaced ~700,000 (floodlist).
As the climate changes, low-lying areas will increasingly face more frequent and intense extreme weather events: sea level rise, destruction of houses and farms, immigration, food insecurity, to list a few of global warming’s effects. About 120 million people live on the Ganges Delta under the threat of repeated catastrophic floods due to heavy runoff of meltwater from the Himalayas and due to the intense rainfall during the monsoon season. (NASA)
Particularly at risk, for example, is Bangladesh, shown at the lower right of the map above, home to the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta, the largest delta in the world. It spreads ~105,000 km2 across the country, and spans ~354 km as it enters the Bay of Bengal. With an average elevation of ~1.5m in the west and ~4.5m in the east, it is notably vulnerable to the rising bay waters:
- Floodplains comprise ~80% of the country ?
- high population density: 1252 people/km2 ?
- high levels of poverty ?, ? though decreasing ?
- high dependence of livelihoods on fishing, agriculture
Much of southern Florida is low lying terrain – even the highest points are a scant ~60 meters (above sea level). The images below are from the Space Shuttle Endeavour, dated Feb. 11 2000.? They show that low lying grounds along the coast are susceptible to storm surges and flooding. Large areas of land risk being completely submerged as a result of rising sea levels.
standard view, with
green colors indicating
elevations above sea:
< 5 meters – blue
<10 meters – lighter blue
An article ? (03/2015), by Alexandra Ossola, urges the debate become less political and more pragmatic to mitigate the effects of climate change and move forward. She cites that almost half of Republicans believe “climate change is not a real problem” while the same fraction of Democrats believe that it’s “a major problem – could become a crisis”.
Since March 2015, Florida Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) were banned from using the phrases “climate change” and “global warming”, perhaps to be less discordant with Governor R Scott (R; since 2011) and his view that “climate change is not caused by human activity” (“I’m not a scientist” ?).
Recent flooding of the Mississippi in the winter of 2016 made for the second time in 200 years a top-40 list of flood crests at St. Louis – the other flood occurred in December 1982 during a major El Niño. See NASA’s satellite photos and read more. ?
2015 Jan 24
2016 Jan 11
Below is a simulation of what happens to the earth when the ice-caps melt …